Vanadium is a silver gray metal. The melting point is 1890 ± 10 ℃, which is one of the rare metals with high melting point. Its boiling point is 3380 ℃, pure vanadium is hard, non-magnetic and ductile, but if it contains a small amount of impurities, especially nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, etc., it can significantly reduce its plasticity.
The properties of vanadium are similar to those of tantalum and niobium. Roscoe, a British chemist, studied its properties and determined that it is similar to tantalum and niobium, which laid a foundation for the three of them to build a family in the periodic table of elements. Vanadium is a moderately active metal with valence + 2, + 3, + 4 and + 5. Among them, the valence 5 is the most stable, followed by the valence 4. The compounds with valence 5 have oxidation property, while the compounds with valence low have reducibility. The lower the valence of vanadium, the stronger the reducibility. The ionization energy is 6.74 EV, which has the ability of resisting hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, and the performance of resisting gas, salt and water corrosion is better than that of most stainless steel. Vanadium is not oxidized in the air, but soluble in hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and aqua regia.
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Adding a few percent of vanadium to the steel can greatly increase the elasticity, strength, wear resistance and burst resistance of the steel. It is not surprising that vanadium can be found everywhere in the automobile, aviation, railway, electronic technology, national defense industry and other departments. In addition, vanadium oxide has become one of the best catalysts in the chemical industry, known as "chemical bread". It is mainly used for manufacturing high speed cutting steel and other alloy steel and catalyst. Vanadium steel can be made by adding vanadium into steel. Vanadium steel is more compact than ordinary steel structure, with higher toughness, elasticity and mechanical strength. The armour piercing bullet made of vanadium steel can shoot through 40 cm thick steel plate. However, in the iron and steel industry, it is not to add pure vanadium to steel to make vanadium steel, but to directly use the iron ore containing vanadium chemical book to make vanadium steel. Vanadium has many excellent physical and chemical properties, so it is widely used, known as "vitamin". Most of the original vanadium was used in steel. Through refining the structure and grains of steel and increasing the grain coarsening temperature, the strength, toughness and wear resistance of steel were increased. Later, people gradually found the excellent improvement of vanadium in titanium alloy, and applied it to the field of aerospace, which made the aerospace industry made a breakthrough. With the rapid development of science and technology, the demand of new materials is increasing. Vanadium is more and more widely used in the field of non iron and steel, covering many fields such as aerospace, chemistry, battery, pigment, glass, optics, medicine and so on.
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