Hafnium, metal HF, atomic number 72, atomic weight 178.49, is a shiny silver gray transition metal. There are six natural stable isotopes of hafnium: hafnium 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180. Hafnium does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid and strong base solution, but it is soluble in hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia. The element name comes from the Latin name of Copenhagen. In 1925, Swedish chemist Hervey and Dutch physicist Koster got pure hafnium salt by fractional crystallization of fluorine-containing complex salt, and reduced it with sodium metal to get pure hafnium metal. Hafnium content in the earth's crust is 0.00045%, which is often associated with zirconium in nature.
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Hafnium is useful because it emits electrons easily (as filament for incandescent lamps). It is used as the cathode of X-ray tube, and the alloy of hafnium and tungsten or molybdenum is used as the electrode of high-voltage discharge tube. It is commonly used in X-ray cathode and tungsten wire manufacturing industry. Pure hafnium is an important material in atomic energy industry because of its plasticity, easy processing, high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. Hafnium is an ideal neutron absorber because of its large thermal neutron capture cross-section. It can be used as control rod and protection device of atomic reactor. Hafnium powder can be used as thruster of rocket. The cathode of X-ray tube can be made in electrical industry. Hafnium alloy can be used as the front protective layer of rocket nozzles and glider re-entry vehicles. HF TA alloy can be used to make tool steel and resistance materials. Hafnium is used as an additive in heat-resistant alloys, such as tungsten, molybdenum and tantalum. HFC can be used as additive of cemented carbide because of its high hardness and melting point. The melting point of 4chachfc is about 4215 ℃, which is the highest known compound. Hafnium can be used as a getter in many gas filled systems. HF getter can remove oxygen, nitrogen and other unnecessary gases in the system. Hafnium is often used as an additive of hydraulic oil to prevent the volatilization of hydraulic oil during high-risk operation. It has a strong anti volatilization property, so it is generally used in industrial hydraulic oil. Medical hydraulic oil.
Hafnium is also used in the latest Intel 45 nanoprocessors. Because silicon dioxide (SiO2) has manufacturability, and can reduce the thickness to improve the transistor efficiency continuously, processor manufacturers all use SiO2 as the material to make gate dielectric. When Intel introduced the 65nm manufacturing process, although it has made every effort to reduce the thickness of silicon dioxide gate dielectric to 1.2nm, equivalent to five layers of atoms, when the transistor is reduced to the size of atoms, the difficulty of power consumption and heat dissipation will increase at the same time, resulting in current waste and unnecessary heat energy. Therefore, if we continue to use current materials, further reduce the thickness and the thickness of gate dielectric The leakage situation will rise significantly, making the technology of reducing transistors encounter the limit. To solve this key problem, Intel is planning to use thicker high-k materials (hafnium based materials) as gate dielectrics instead of silica, which has also successfully reduced the power leakage by more than 10 times. In addition, compared with the previous generation of 65nm technology, Intel's 45nm process increases the transistor density nearly twice, which can increase the total number of transistors in the processor or reduce the processor volume. In addition, the switching action of transistors requires less power, which reduces the power consumption by nearly 30%, and the internal connections With copper wire and low k dielectric, the efficiency can be improved and the power consumption can be reduced, and the switch action speed can be increased by about 20%.
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